Very abundant harvest? The season of strawberries or apricots is in full swing on the stalls? Want to make your own canned food for the winter? Here is an overview of the different preservation methods that are easy to implement at home, with, for each, its advantages.
To preserve its harvests: a necessity
Those who have a vegetable garden, fruit trees or mushroom pickers are well aware: it is not always easy to consume its production of fruits or vegetables “just in flow”. To cope with periods of abundance, where harvesting and gathering are generous, and thus avoid waste while allowing the possibility to put on the menu beans, cherries or strawberries later in the year, conservation is a passage almost mandatory! Some techniques are not feasible at the domestic level: leave them to industry, and focus on food preservation techniques that can be implemented at home – at least, as far as fruits, vegetables, mushrooms and herbs. It is more risky to venture into the conservation of animal products when the different techniques are not well mastered, because the microbiological risk is greater than with plant products: therefore, the greatest caution is needed with sensitive products. From Health Canada Consultants you will be having the best filtering now.
Objective: to prevent the development of germs, pathogens or not
To preserve the food, it is on the one hand to stabilize them – more or less durable – in a consumable form (to avoid for example that they rot), and, on the other hand, to prevent the proliferation of the pathogenic germs . For this, several solutions: destroy the germs present in the food, or prevent them from multiplying, either by modifying the medium (acidity, adding oil, salt, sugar …), or by occupying the ground with d other harmless and even useful germs, especially lactic ferments.
Cold storage: freezing
Freezing is the simplest and most common preservation process, provided you have a (large) freezer. Frozen at -18 ° C, the food can be stored for several months (for a 3 freezer), without their appearance evolving, and without the microorganisms present can develop.
Advantages : simplicity, ease, speed, little material needed, preservation of vitamins and flavors, little bacteriological risk.
Heat preservation: preserves
Heat (100°C) to destroy the germs, having first placed the food in an airtight container to avoid recontaminations: this is the technique of canning, in other words, canning (glass jars, metal boxes …).
Advantages: long product life (if the appreciation is conducted in good conditions), storage canned at room temperature therefore energy efficient, relative preservation of food taste.
Preservation by salt, sugar, oil
Salt, sugar and oil have the same objective: to make the environment unfavorable for the development of bacteria, molds and other germs by reducing what is called the activity of water (= Aw). Clearly: in a very salty environment (salt anchovies, cod …) or very sweet (fruit pasta, jams …), or in oil (lemon comfit in oil …), germs do not find the conditions conducive to their multiplication.
Advantages: thus transformed, the food gains in added value – even in flavors – and it is possible to decline these preparations according to a multitude of recipes (addition of spices, aromatics, uses of different oils …); a perfect solution for gourmets and those who love to cook!
Storage in acidic medium: pickles
The principle is the same as above, except that by making the acid medium (pH between 2 and 3 for vinegar or lemon juice), most germs are prevented from multiplying. Pickles, pickled cherries and other vegetable pickles are examples of pickles.
Advantages: easy to implement, few bacteriological risks.